Path analysis of the relationships among undergraduate students’ learning outcomes and lecturers’ use of pedagogic strategies in economics in Southwestern Nigeria.

Adesina, Bosede Abimbola (2016)

xix,150p

Thesis

This study analysed the strength of the pathways among some explanatory variables (student, environmental and teacher factors); and undergraduate students’ performance in Economics; determined the strength of the pathways among the explanatory variables and undergraduate students’ attitude to Economics; analysed variables with significant direct and indirect influence on undergraduate students’ performance in Economics; identified variables with significant direct and indirect influence on undergraduate students’ attitude to Economics; and determined variables influencing lecturers’ use of pedagogic strategies in Economics. These were with a view to examining factors influencing undergraduate Economics students’ learning outcomes and lecturers’ use of pedagogic strategies, using path analysis. The ex- post facto research design was used for this study. The population for the study consisted of the undergraduate Economics students and their lecturers in public universities located in the six states of southwestern Nigeria. Of the 15 public universities in the six states of southwestern Nigeria (seven federal and eight state universities), four universities comprising two federal universities and two state universities were sampled using federal/state stratification. From each of these four universities, 50 undergraduates at 400 level were selected by convenient sampling to make up a study sample of 200 students. All the available sixty-two lecturers in the Economics Department of the selected universities were also used for the study. Eight instruments were used namely: Questionnaire on Students’ Socio-economic Status (QSES), Adapted Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (ACSEI), Adapted Cornell Critical Thinking Test (ACCTT), Adapted Hazard and Nadeau Study Habits Inventory (AHNSHI), Memletics Learning Style Inventory (MLSI), Martin Cognitive-style Inventory (MCI), Questionnaire on Students’ Attitude to Economics (QSAE) and Observation Inventory for Lecturers’ Pedagogic Strategies and Materials (OILPSM). QSES was used to collect data on students’ demographic characteristics and socio-economic status; ACSEI was used to collect data on students’ self-esteem; ACCTT was used to collect data on students’ critical thinking ability; AHNSHI was used to collect data on students’ study habits; MLSI was used to collect data on students’ learning style; MCSI was used to collect data on students’ cognitive style; QSAE was used to collect data on students’ attitude to Economics; OILPSM was used as a guide for observing lecturers’ use of pedagogic strategies and choice of instructional materials; and for collecting data on lecturers’ qualifications Results showed that the strengths of 33 out of 80 pathways among the explanatory variables and undergraduate students’ performance in Economics were significant (0.097 ≤ β ≤ 0.903, ρ ˂ 0.05); strengths of 30 out of 80 pathways among the explanatory variables and undergraduate students’ attitude to Economics were significant (0.109 ˂ β ˂ 0.905, ρ ˂ 0.05); variables with significant direct and indirect influence on undergraduate students’ performance in Economics were school type (β = 0.507, ρ ˂ 0.05), mathematics background (β = -0.393, ρ ˂ 0.05), cognitive style (β = 0.219, ρ ˂ 0.05), study habits (β = 0.196, ρ ˂ 0.05), lecturers’ qualification (β = -0.139, ρ ˂ 0.05), pedagogic strategies (β = 0.369, ρ ˂ 0.05), method of teaching (β = -0.417, ρ ˂ 0.05) and instructional materials (β = -0.273, ρ ˂ 0.05); and students’ sex (β = 0.063, ρ ˂ 0.05), school type (β = 0.008, ρ ˂ 0.05), language background (β = -0.016, ρ ˂ 0.05), mathematics background (β = 0.010, ρ ˂ 0.05), science background (β = 0.017, ρ ˂ 0.05), self-esteem (β = 0.068, ρ ˂ 0.05), cognitive style (β = 0.045, ρ ˂ 0.05), learning style (β = 0.040, ρ ˂ 0.05), lecturers’ sex (β = 0.110, ρ ˂ 0.05), lecturers’ qualification (β = 0.087, ρ ˂ 0.05), pedagogic strategies (β = -0.091, ρ ˂ 0.05) and method of teaching (β = 0.036, ρ ˂ 0.05); and variables with significant direct and indirect influence on undergraduate students’ attitude to Economics were language background (β = 0.277, ρ ˂ 0.05), self-esteem (β = 0.120, ρ ˂ 0.05), cognitive style (β = 0.508, ρ ˂ 0.05), study habits (β = 0.209, ρ ˂ 0.05), lecturers’ sex (β = -0.150, ρ ˂ 0.05) and instructional materials (β = 0.367, ρ ˂ 0.05); and students’ sex (β = 0.001, ρ ˂ 0.05), school type (β = 0.003, ρ ˂ 0.05), socio-economic status (β = 0.001, ρ ˂ 0.05), language background (β = -0.013, ρ ˂ 0.05), mathematics background (β = 0.020, ρ ˂ 0.05), science background (β = 0.015, ρ ˂ 0.05), self-esteem (β = 0.101, ρ ˂ 0.05), learning style (β = 0.040, ρ ˂ 0.05), lecturers’ sex (β = -0.003, ρ ˂ 0.05), lecturers’ qualification (β = -0.027, ρ ˂ 0.05), pedagogic strategies (β = 0.107, ρ ˂ 0.05) and method of teaching (β = 0.062, ρ ˂ 0.05). Also, lecturers’ sex (0.017 ˂ β ˂ 0.039, ρ ˂ 0.05), school type (β = -0.067, ρ ˂ 0.05), lecturers’ qualification (β = -0.008, ρ ˂ 0.05), method of teaching (0.036 ˂ β ˂ 0.477, ρ ˂ 0.05) and instructional materials (β = 0.134, ρ ˂ 0.05) are the variables with significant influence on lecturers’ use of pedagogic strategies in Economics. The study concluded that factors affecting undergraduate students’ learning outcomes in Economics and Economics lecturers’ use of pedagogic strategies vary in strength and direction of influence. Furthermore undergraduate Economics students’ performance and attitude to Economics can be improved by making decisions on planning and executing pedagogic interventions in teaching and learning of Economics based on the varying strengths and directions of influence of significant explanatory variables on undergraduate students’ performance in and attitude to Economics. Also undergraduate Economics learning outcomes and Economics lecturers’ use of pedagogic strategies can be planned, predicted and explained based on the models built by the study.

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