Toxicological evaluation of the methanol extract and butanol fraction of Chrysophyllum Albidum Cotyledonin rats
The seed extracts of Chrysophyllum albidum(CA) have beenreported to possess anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, hypolipidemic, antihyperglycemicproperties among others. As with other phytomedicines, there is the risk of adverse effects due to its indiscriminate use which could be attributed but not limited to the perceived safety of herbal formulations. The study therefore investigated the toxicological profile of the methanol extract (ME) and butanol fraction (BF) of the CA cotyledon. Dried cotyledons were subjected to extraction and fractionation processes using methanol and butanol respectively. Single dose (150, 300, 600 mg/kg ME and 40 , 80 , 160 mg/kg BF; n = 5) and repeated dose (100, 300 mg/kg ME and 50 , 150 mg/kg BF; n = 10) toxicity tests were conducted via acute and sub-acuteoral exposure of nulliparous female Wistar rats to the ME and BF of CA cotyledon by evaluation of various endpoints including functional observational battery (FOB); haematological; biochemical and histopathological parameters, in accordance with the guidelines of OECD – 420 and – 407. A 21 – day non – dosing recovery study was subsequently conducted to ascertain the reversibility (or persistence) potential for toxicity. Results revealed that ME and BF were relatively toxic, having LD50 of 760 and 200 mg/kg (p.o.) respectively. The test substances were found to have depressant activity following the FOB. The ME and BF did not causeadverse effect with respect to their body and organ weights following acute and sub-acuteoral exposure. Following acute doses of the ME and BF, there were no significant alterations in the hematological parameters.Repeated administration of ME however, caused significantly reduction in the RBC count (t = 4.350, P = 0.002)and HCT at 300 mg/kg while sub-acute doses of the BF resulted on significantly reduced WBC count (t = 3.32, P = 0.01), HCT (t = 2.854, P = 0.02), MCV (t = 4.306, P = 0.003) and MCH (t = 3.59, P = 0.01) at 150 mg/kg. Acute doses of the ME also caused significant elevation in ALT activity (t = 2.951, P = 0.02) at 300 mg/kg while at 600 mg/kg, significant increase in creatinine levels (t = 3.909, P = 0.01) was noted. Single dose administration of BF also caused significant increase (t = 4.76, P = 0.00)in ALT activity at 80 mg/kgwhile at 160 mg/kg, significant decrease in indirect bilirubin (t = 2.452, P = 0.04) was noted. Repeated administration of the ME resulted in significant increase in ALT activity (t = 3.066, P = 0.02), AST activity (t = 4.000, P = 0.00), creatinine levels (t = 4.444, P = 0.00) at 100 mg/kg while at 300 mg/kg, decreases in indirect (t = 2.620, P = 0.03) and total bilirubin (t = 2.56, P = 0.03) was noted. The AST activity (t = 2.419, P = 0.04) was significantly decreased in animals repeatedly administered the BF at 50 mg/kg. Histological examination of liver, kidney and brain did not reveal significant changes in the treatment groups compared to the control. The study concluded that the test materials had potential to cause moderate but reversible forms of toxicity; therefore there is need for caution in the consumption of Chrysophyllum albidum cotyledon.