Asaptial distribution study of acute gastroenteritis and associated bacterial isolates from domestic water sources in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
This study determined the spatial distribution of acute gastroenteritis, isolated and characterizedand determined the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacteria from the domestic water sources and soils from the implicated hotspots in Ile-Ife. It also determined the physical and chemical parameters of water quality of water from the identified hotspots. This were with the view to determining possible contamination of the domestic water from the implicated areas, detect the extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBLs) and the resistance genes of the bacteria isolates and likely hotspots for acute gastroenteritis within the identified hotspots. A Handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver was used to obtain co-ordinates of the recorded households with fatalities of acute gastroenteritis from 2008-2012. The maps were scanned, imported into ArcView Geographical Information System (GIS) and geo-referenced using points with known geographical co-ordinates. Water and soil samples were collected from drinking water sources and soil sample from soil close to the drinking water sources respectively. Samples were collected every week from different sources between January to March, 2016. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates were conducted using standard protocols while, the detection of the ESBL gene (SHV) was done using PCR based techniques, the results were statistically analysed using Graphpad Prism 6. Using conventional biochemical kits, the bacteria isolates were identified as Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., Klebsiella spp., Shigella spp., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Yersinia spp., Proteus spp., Kluyvera spp., Aeromonasspp. Physicochemical analysis showed the mean values of pH was in the range of 5.12 ± 0.11 to 7.30 ± 0.43 with Akarabata and Iremo 2 having the highest and least pH values respectively. High values were noticed in water quality parameters such as: total dissolved solid with range 55.50 ±16.24 to 501.80 ± 60.2 mg/L and electrical conductivity value range between 7.56 ± 0.83 to 151.09 ± 23.16. The highest DO (1.467±0.133 mg/L) and BOD (0.596±0.120 mg/L) values were observed in Iremo 5 and Iremo 1 respectively. Bacteriological evaluation of water samples from Ife East Local Government, showed heterotrophic plate count (HPC) ranged between 2.832 ± 0.212 and 4.076 ± 0.093 Log cfu/mL. Total coliform count (TCC) ranged between 19.60 ± 5.144 and 758.60±359.8 MPN index/100mL. Water samples from Ife Central Local Government had Heterotrophic plate count ranged between 2.522 ± 0.119 and 4.044 ± 0.060Log cfu/mL. TCC ranged between 0.00±0.00 and 861±466.0MPN index/100mL.Antibiotic susceptibility study showed 83.61% of the isolates were resistant to cefuroxime, (83.6%)cefixime, (81.1%)augmentin, (63.6%)ceftazidime, (58.2%)nitrofurantoin, (50.9%) ofloxacin and (38.2%) gentamicin. Nine (8.1%) of the isolates subjected to phenotypic detection of ESBL genes showed the presence of these genes. SHV gene was detected in 5 (55.6%) of the isolates. The study concluded that acute gastroenteritis was endemic in the study area, with greater vulnerability in areas where clean water and proper sanitary conditions were inadequate.