EFFICACY OF SAND FILTRATION, Moringa oleifera SEED AND ALUM TREATMENT IN REDUCTION OF COLIFORMS AND TOTAL BACTERIA IN STABILIZATION POND EFFLUENT

Awopetu, B.A ; Ikechuwkwu, M ; Odeyemi, O (2011)

International Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, Vol. 1,No. 1,p. 40-44

Journal

Objectives A slow sand filter was designed and constructed with decreasing sizes of sand layers. Granulations were made out of the seeds of Moringa oleifera. Their turbidity clarification, coliform and total bacteria reduction were tested. Their abilities to reduce the densities of Salmonella typhi, Bacillus cereus, Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli in waste water were also tested. Coliform number reduction was 78% by sand filtration, 78% alum treatment and 98% by M. oleifera ground seed treatment. The sand filter reduced total bacteria population by 4%, alum and M. oleifera treatments by 33% and 84% respectively. There was a 12% reduction in Shigella dysenteriae numbers by the slow sand filter, 57% reduction by alum and 76% reduction Moringa oleifera treatment. Sand filtration reduced Salmonella typhi population by 29%, alum and Moringa oleifera treatments did so by 43% and 71% respectively. Escherichia coli numbers were reduced by 10% by sand filtration, 27% by alum treatment and 56% by M. oleifera treatment. Bacillus cereus population was reduced by 9% by both sand filtration and alum treatment while Moringa oleifera application gave a 32% reduction. M. oleifera ground seed treatment was the best at coliform population reduction (98% reduction) of the three treatments. Sand filtration and alum treatment were found to be equal in coliform reduction rate since they both reduced coliform numbers by 78%. M. oleifera treatment was the most efficient in total bacteria population reduction, with an 84% reduction rate. Slow sand filtration was most effective on S. typhi (29% reduction) of the four organisms tested