Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of trace elements of total atmospheric deposit (TAD) around a smelting industry: aerial pollution monitor
Taylor & Francis, page 1-16
This study monitored total atmospheric deposit (TAD) around a smelting plant in Ile-Ife, Nigeria to assess the contributions of the industry to Nigeria’s air-shed pollution. Samples were collected for 12 consecutive months using an Australian model gauge, harvested after 30 d of exposure, filtered and dried to constant weights using oven. Monthly deposition rates were determined and elemental characterizations of the TAD samples were done using proton-induced X-ray emission technique. Results revealed that the monthly deposition rates ranged from 0.69 to 4.62 gm¡3 and was more pronounced in Harmattan. Twenty-three elements were detected; their total elemental concentrations ranged from 1.23 to 13.63 mg m¡3 with Fe having the highest concentrations, while Na has the least. Pearson correlation indicated that some elements have common sources and/ or similar chemical properties; enrichment factor showed that Fe, Zn, Pb, Mn were extremely enriched in the study area, modified degree of contamination (3.75) and pollution load intensity (1.21) showed that the neighborhoods could be exposed to high air pollution related impacts. Positive matrix factorization model revealed three distinct sources: Smelting emission (63%), biomass burning (17%), and suspended input material emissions (21%). The study concluded that the smelting activities posed a great hazard to receptors around the smelting industry.