Assessment of electrical energy use efficiency in Nigeria food industry
African Journal of Food Science. Vol. 3,Issue No.8, pp. 206-216
This study examined various patterns of energy consumption; it identified the sources of energy wastage, and assessed the effectiveness of the strategies that were employed to reduce energy waste in the food companies. This was with a view to recommending policy measures that would enhance effective electrical energy savings in the industry. Random sampling technique was used to select the food companies in South-western Nigeria which represent more than 50% of the Nigerian food and beverage companies. Structured questionnaire, interview and direct observation were employed as research instruments. Analytical procedure as given by Knutson and ANSI/NEMP for calculating electrical energy lost to heat per hour (Wh/h) and power factor respectively was adopted for the study. The study showed that the pattern of electrical energy consumption in the food companies was mainly from generating set; this was due to either low voltage or epileptic power supply from national grid. Direct and indirect sources that lead to electrical energy waste and in-efficient energy utilization in the industry were identified such as energy loss as a result of worn out or slack / misaligned belts that need timely replacement or tensioning, training and retraining of staff, power factor of electrical equipment among others. Three out of eleven strategies were effective in reducing the companies' electricity bill by 3% for the same quantity of production. These include: switching off most lighting during day time; instant replacement / tensioning of worn out / slack belts or chains and; disconnection of all faulty equipment. This finding shows that 72.8% of all the acclaimed strategies to reduce energy consumption were not effective. The study concluded that the factors that constituted electrical energy waste and energy use inefficiency in the food companies in the study area were very identical and recommendations for effective energy use efficiency in the firms were proposed.