Health-related quality of life in Nigerian patients with facial trauma and controls: a preliminary survey
We examined the health-related quality of Life (HR QoL) of patients with facial trauma and compared it with that of healthy controls; temporal changes in HR QoL of patients over 12 weeks compared with baseline values; and whether the risk of depression could be identified by baseline HR QoL. For 26 months we recruited 126 consecutive patients with facial injuries and 126 age and sex-matched healthy controls for the study. Enrolment criteria included age 18 years and over, Glasgow coma scale score on admission of 12 and over, and duration of stay of more than 24 hours. HR QoL was measured using the 26-item World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHO QoL-Bret), and depression was measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Scores in all domains of the WHO QoLBref (physical, psychological, social relations. and environment) were considerably reduced in injured patients compared with controls. During follow up there were improvements only in the domains of physical health and environment but not in psychological health. There was a significant reduction in the HR QoL domain of social relationships with time. The regression equation for all four QoL domains as predictors was significantly related to depression scores throughout the study period. Patients with facial injuries are at risk of poor QoL after trauma. There was a high incidence of depression throughout the follow-up period and poor QoL at baseline predicted depression during follow-up.