Prevalence and pattern of hypertension in a semiurban community in Nigeria
Background Hypertension has been reported to be a major problem of the blacks. There is a paucity of studies, however, on community-based surveys on the prevalence and pattern of hypertension in Nigeria in the recent time. This study sought to investigate the prevalence and pattern of hypertension in the adult population living in the ancient semiurban community of Ile-Ife, southwest Nigeria. Design and methods Two thousand and ninety-seven adults of above 20 years of age were recruited into the door-todoor survey through a multistage cluster sampling technique. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on blood pressure (BP) threshold of 160/95 mmHg and the World Health Organization /International Society of Hypertension guidelines (Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure guidelines) definitions. Resting blood pressure was taken using electronic sphygmomanometer. Results The mean age and BP of the participants were aged 44.2 ± 11.6 years and 127/77 mmHg, respectively. The participants (36.6%) had a BP of greater than or equal to 140/90 mmHg whereas 13.3% had BP of greater than or equal to 160/95 mmHg. 22.1% had isolated systolic hypertension whereas 14.5% had isolated diastolic hypertension using the BP of greater than or equal to 140/90 mmHg cut off-point. Using the BP of greater than or equal to 160/95 mmHg, isolated systolic hypertension and isolated diastolic hypertension were 6.63%, respectively. A male-to-female ratio of 1.7 : 1 and 1 : 5 was observed for BP greater than or equal to 140/90 mmHg and BP greater than or equal to 160/95 mmHg, respectively. Hypertension prevalence increased across age gradient from young to old adults. Conclusion The prevalence estimates of hypertension obtained in this study was higher than those found in most earlier studies from Nigeria, other West Africa nations and for African–Americans.