Evaluation of Routine Immunization Coverage in Irepodun Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria
This study determined the routine immunization coverage amongst children aged 12-23 months and tetanus toxoid immunization history of their mothers in Irepodun LGA of Osun State. It further ascertained the socio-demographic determinants of the immunization status of the respondents with a view to proposing strategies for improving immunization coverage in the LGA. The study population consisted of children aged 12-23 months and their mothers. A cross sectional descriptive design was employed. Two hundred and ten fully immunized children aged 12-23 months were recruited from the surveyed houses, using the modified WHO cluster sampling technique for estimation of vaccine coverage Thirty clusters (aggregates of family compounds) were selected out of a total of 45 clusters that made up the LGA. From each selected cluster, eligible children and their mothers were recruited until a total of seven fully immunized children were enlisted into the study. The mothers of the eligible children were equally assessed for tetanus toxoid immunization uptake during the pregnancy of the index children. Data were collected from households using an interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire. Immunization records of both children and mothers were also examined. Results were presented using univariate (frequencies and percentages) and bivariates (cross- tabulations and chi-square) statistical methods. The result showed that 315 eligible children were recruited from the surveyed houses before finding 210 fully immunized ones, giving an immunization coverage of 66.7%. One hundred (47.6%) of the fully immunized were males while 110 (52.4%) were females. The early vaccine such as BCG had better uptake (93.8%) compared with the later ones such as measles (75%) among the eligible children. Furthermore only 82% of the mothers received at least 2 doses of tetanus toxoid vaccine during the pregnancy of index children. Of these, 81% were mothers of children who were fully immunized. Among the children that were not fully immunized, non-availability of vaccines (99%), socio-economic engagements (80%) and religious injunctions (79%) were the major reasons given by mothers for not receiving or completing the immunization schedules of their children. Mothers' tetanus toxoid immunization history during pregnancy (X2=358.2) mothers' marital status (X2=231.7) index children's birth order (X2=101.8) and mothers' profession (X2=19.3) all significantly influenced immunization uptake of the index children (p<0.05). This study concluded that the immunization coverage of 66.7% recorded, although better than the national coverage of 40%, fell short of the national target of 80% coverage for all antigens in the country.