Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of the fractions of archidium ohionense
This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory potential of Archidium ohioense (a moss) and elucidated the structure of the compound responsible for this activity. This was with a view to finding the bioactive compound(s) responsible for its anti-inflammatory reactions. The plant materials were dried and milled into powders. The powdered plant sample (1.5 kg) was extracted with 80% (v/v) methanol for 48 h at room temperature. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo to yield the crude methanol extract. The crude extract was partitioned with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate and butanol to afford five different fractions. Each of the fractions obtained was screened for presence of secondary metabolites. Also the membrane stabilization potential, albumin denaturation inhibition, xanthine oxidase and lipooxygenase inhibitory techniques of the fractions were evaluated using standard methods. The structure of the compound responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity from the ethyl acetate fraction (most active) was elucidated via chromatographic and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. All the fractions possessed strong anti-inflammatory properties at various concentrations tested. The ethyl acetate fraction (EtOAc) exerted maximum percentage stability of 97.39±0.00 at 0.15 mg/ml, n-hexane fraction (nHF) exerted 96.23±0.00% at 0.25 mg/ml, dichloromethane fraction (DCMF) exerted 91.85±0.00% stability at 0.30 mg/ml,butanol fraction exerted 87.71±0.00% at 0.30 mg/ml and aqueous fractions (with least) percentage membrane stability of 23.93±0.01 at 0.15 mg/ml. The EtOAc, DCM and nH fractions competed favourably with diclofenac (a standard drug) which exerted 86.94±0.00% at 0.30 mg/ml. All the fractions of A. ohioense demonstrated anti-denaturation activities on heat-treated bovine serum albumin (BSA) with the EtOAcfraction having the highest inhibitory activity, followed by DCM. Also, EtOAc fraction demonstrated higher and better percentage inhibitory activities for both lipooxygenase and xanthine oxidase than the DCM fraction at 0.05 mg/ml. The EtOAc fraction had its maximum percentage inhibitions of 75.00±1.67 for lipooxygenase and 62.50±8.84 for xanthine oxidase. The percentage inhibition of lipooxygenase and xanthine oxidase by DCM fraction were 71.67±3.54 and 50.00±0.00 respectively. Ascorbic acid, a well-known inhibitor of lipooxygenase inhibited the enzyme to 70.00±2.36% while allopurinol (a standard drug) had 77.50±1.76% inhibition against xanthine oxidase. This study concluded that the ethyl acetate fraction of the plant exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activity. Also the compound responsible for this action was elucidated to be 4, 4-dimethyl cyclohexanone.